VITAMIN D – why vitamin d is important
The results of research conducted in recent years indicate many benefits associated with the supply of vitamin D. Currently, this vitamin is not associated only with the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism. Vitamin D is necessary to regulate various processes in tissues and organs. It allows the immune system to function properly. It improves the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the digestive system, which leads to the necessary content of these elements in the body.
Why vitamin D id important?
Vitamin D (not really a vitamin but a hormone) is produced in skin cells (epidermis) from an organic chemical called 7-dehydrocholesterol (more commonly known as provitamin D3), a derivative of cholesterol, which contradicts the current belief that cholesterol is a harmful substance. As it turns out, this relationship actually gives rise to many useful hormones in the body. If sunlight falls on our skin, the UVB ultraviolet radiation contained in this light transforms this provitamin, consequently changing it into vitamin D3. Then it penetrates from skin cells into the bloodstream, where it is transported by the appropriate type of protein, the so-called Vitamin D binding protein. Through the circulatory system, vitamin D3 reaches various body organs. The liver undergoes a slight change in the chemical structure, resulting in the 25 (OH) D3 compound, in this form it is then transported to the kidneys, where it undergoes another structure change to form 1.25 (OH) 2 D3, the active form of vitamin D, which along with blood, it goes to various organs and areas of the body, affecting them in a certain way. It is this property of vitamin D that makes it really a hormone.
Of our 30,000 genes, vitamin D has an effect on 2,000! It participates in 200 different chemical reactions in the body. It was found in almost every type of human body cell and in every human tissue from bone to brain! Vitamin D as one of four fat soluble vitamins.
What vitamin D deficiency causes
Vitamin D deficiency are among the most common deficiencies in the general population. Their consequences include many systems, including the circulatory, muscle and joints, endocrine and others. Correcting the deficiency of vitamin D can have extremely crucial impact on many diseases. The following is a multi-disciplinary expert opinion on the significance of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases and their reasonableness supplement its deficiencies, based on the latest reports and publications (Forum Medycyny Rodzinnej 2015, vol 9, no 6, 423 -434).
Vitamin D is known mainly for its effect on bone metabolism. The consequence of its action on the skeletal and muscular system is the correct concentration of calcium. Deficiency leads to rickets in children and osteomalacia in the elderly, which is associated with an increased risk of bone fractures. The optimal concentration of vitamin D ensures the proper functioning of our skeleton as a supporting structure for the whole body. Every deficiency nowadays is estimated that vitamin D concentration below 20 ng / ml occurs in 41% of patients between 49 and 83 years old) may cause reduced mobility and weakening of antigravity muscle work and, as a consequence, falls (Czerwiński E., Kumorek A. Falls, vitamin D and fractures. Progress of Science Med. 2012; 25: 226-231. Marcinowska-Suchowierska E., Sawicka A. Calcium and vitamin D in the prevention of osteoporotic fractures. Progress of Science Med. 2012; 25: 273–279 ).A 2009 meta-analysis by BischoffFerrari and Dawson- Hughes shows that vitamin D supplementation at a dose of 700–1000 IU / day. in persons over 65 years of age reduces the risk of fractures by 19%, and vitamin D levels of 60 nmol / l or more allows a 23% reduction in the risk of falling (Czerwiński E., Kumorek A. Falls, vitamin D and fractures. Progress in Sciences Med. 2012; 25: 226–231, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B., Staehelin HB et al. Fall prevention with supplemental and active forms of vitamin D: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMJ 2009; 339 : b3692). In adults with a vitamin D deficiency below 10 ng / ml, generalised muscle weakness is observed, especially in proximal upper and lower limbs.
A slight vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng / ml) reduces skeletal muscle strength, especially the quadriceps (Anweialler C., Beauchet O., Berrut G. et al. Vitamin D deficiency-related quadriceps weakness: results of the Epidemiologie De l’Osteoporose cohort J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 2009; 57: 368–369). Supplementing the deficits improves functional performance, reduces the risk of falls and speeds up recovery after rehabilitation for fractures. Vitamin D supplementation supporting regular physical activity shows even better effectiveness (Czerwiński E., Borowy P., Kumorek A. Vitamin D and the musculoskeletal system. Standard Med. 2012).
Of course we have to be careful with supplementation of Vitamin D, because overdose of vitamin D leads to the accumulation of calcium in tissues, including the heart, especially in the arteries and kidneys. As a consequence, the heart and central nervous system are disturbed. In addition, the incidence of gallbladder and kidney stones increases.